The Garfagnana (Italian: [ɡarfaɲˈɲaːna]) is a historical and geographical region of central Italy, today part of the province of Lucca, in Tuscany. It is the upper valley or basin of the river Serchio, and thus lies between the main ridge of the Northern Apennines to the north-east and the Alpi Apuane to the west. The principal towns are Castelnuovo di Garfagnana and Barga.
Garfagnana was historically inhabited by Ligurian (Apuani and Friniati) and Etruscan populations. The area was conquered by the Romans in 180 BC. After the fall of the Carolingian empire in 888 it came under the control of various feudal lords, and was later caught up in the rivalry between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines. In 1248 the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II ceded it to the Republic of Lucca. In the fifteenth century much of the territory came under the control of the d'Este family of Ferrara, and in 1847 the remaining part was absorbed into the Duchy of Modena. With the unification of Italy, the Garfagnana became part of the province of Massa e Carrara, and in 1923 passed to that of Lucca.
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