Gniezno ([ˈɡɲeznɔ] (listen); German: Gnesen; Latin: Gnesna) is a city in central-western Poland, about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of Poznań. Its population in 2021 was 66,769, making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. One of the Piast dynasty's chief cities, it was the first historical capital of Poland in the 10th century and early 11th century, and it was mentioned in 10th-century sources, possibly including the Dagome Iudex, as the capital of Piast Poland. Gniezno is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno, the country's oldest archdiocese, founded in 1000, and its archbishop is the primate of Poland, making the city the country's ecclesiastical capital. The city is the administrative seat of Gniezno County (powiat).
Gniezno is one of the historic centers of the Greater Poland region, the cradle of the Polish state. Like Rome, Gniezno was founded on seven hills, including the Lech Hill, which is the location of the Gniezno Cathedral, and the Panieńskie Hill, which is the location of the Rynek (Market Square). Five lakes are located within the city limits: Winiary, Jelonek, Świętokrzyskie, Koszyk, Zacisze.
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