The Royal Marine Barracks, Woolwich was a military installation occupied by the Royal Marines and located in Frances Street, just south of Woolwich Dockyard. After the Royal Marines' departure from Woolwich it was renamed Cambridge Barracks, while the adjacent Royal Marine Infirmary was renamed Red Barracks.
The Woolwich Division of the Royal Marines was established, as part of the response to the threat created by the Napoleonic Wars, in 1805. New barracks for marines, who provided a military presence in the Dockyard, were established east of Frances Street in 1808. Bowater Cottage, which had been built in the 1790s, became the home of the Colonel Commandant of the barracks in 1812. The barracks were re-built, to a design developed Captain William Denison RE, between 1842 and 1848. They were of an enlightened design for their time, built to provide even the lowest-ranked inhabitants with sufficient light, space and fresh air. Rushgrove House, which had been built in 1806, became the home of the Colonel Commandant of the barracks in 1855.
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