Pyatigorsk (Russian: Пятиго́рск; Circassian: Псыхуабэ, Psıxwabæ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia located on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about 45 kilometers (28 mi) from Kislovodsk. Since January 19, 2010, it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. Population: 142,511 (2010 Census); 140,559 (2002 Census); 129,499 (1989 Census).
The name is derived from the fused Russian words "пять гор" (five mountains) and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau (which also means five mountains in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780, and has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803. Pyatigorsk is one of the oldest spa resorts in Russia. The health resort provides unique medical resources, and its underground wealth supplies 50 different mineral springs, medical mud taken from Lake Tambukan located 10 km (6 mi) from Pyatigorsk, and the mild climate of the area. It is one of 116 historical towns of the Russian Federation.
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