Railway Institute Building is a heritage-listed former educational facility and social venue at 101 Chalmers Street, Surry Hills, City of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1891 to 1898. It is also known as Institute Building. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
In the early years of the nineteenth century the area around what is now Prince Alfred Park and the infrastructure of Central railway station was undeveloped land known as the Government Paddocks. Amongst the early grants in this locality were those made to Charles Smith which consisted of four hectares (ten acres) straddling what is now Chalmers Street and was roughly bounded by the present day Cleveland and Elizabeth Streets, and the large grant made to William Redfern. Smith's grant was known as Cleveland Gardens, and by the early 1820s it was owned by the merchant Daniel Cooper. Cooper erected Cleveland House, which still stands, in 1824 to the design of architect Francis Greenway. It was not, however, the first building in the locality, for the Benevolent Asylum was erected in 1820-21 at the direction of Governor Macquarie at what would become the corner of Pitt and Devonshire Streets. The "turnpike house" was a short distance away.
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